However, affiliate marketing isn’t just about marketing your partners’ goods, or at the very least it can be about much more than that. Affiliate marketing is also an opportunity to create your own website or some other form of content and get paid to do so, because you’ll be running ads and providing other links to things your audience will genuinely want to buy, at least if you combine your affiliates and your interests correctly.
Want to promote cameras through your photography blog/review site? First check out a couple of camera retailers and choose only the best affiliate programs. Are their terms favorable? Is the payout big enough to sustain your affiliate business? Do they offer a wide range of products? Do they have good reputation in the market? Is their affiliate program successful? How do they treat their existing affiliates? These are just some of the factors to consider when choosing the products and partners to promote.
"Reading Michelle's income reports each month made me realize the huge potential there is to make more money online. Even as a blogger with an established site over 8 years old, I knew that there was so much that I could learn from Michelle because she's had such incredible success! Watching her income climb each month has really motivated me to change up my affiliate strategy and be more intentional with my efforts." - Jessica Bishop, TheBudgetSavvyBride.com 

So far, you have learned the four parties involved in affiliate marketing, you have seen the examples of some successful affiliate websites and networks, you have also learned the payment and different types of affiliate programs out there, plus, you already know how to become an affiliate or a product vendor, it is now your time to make this work.
In regards to affiliate marketing, click fraud most often refers to generating “fake” clicks to a merchant program that is based on a PPC compensation method. The fake clicks (which can be generated in a manual or automated fashion) have no chance of converting for the merchant since the traffic clicking the ads have no real interest in the product or service the merchant is selling.
As you become comfortable with the affiliate marketing process, you can consider both specialized (e.g. fly fishing) and broad (e.g. weight loss) niches. Don’t forget to track your marketing metrics! They are usually provided by your merchant and/or affiliate network. This way you'll be able to know which products your audience are responding to and which ones aren't generating any profits for your business. This is especially important if you are investing into paid advertising to drive traffic and promote products as an affiliate...
Great article as it gets me thinking about the various ways to monetize my sites. With that said, my biggest hurdle has been how to get started building traffic. You see articles all over the net talking about massive traffic techniques, but I’ve never really found a guide for a fresh blog/website and how to get to their first 100, 500, or 1,000 daily uniques. Of course writing consistent quality content is key, but writing alone an audience does not make. Any tips or articles to point us to? Thanks again Sean!

You do not need millions of page views per month to make money blogging, but it is something you will want to increase if you hope to improve your income. Once you understand what your readers want, understand how to effectively reach out to companies for partnerships, and know how to charge the correct rate, you can make a good income online, regardless of the number of page views you receive. Increasing your pages view is necessary to make money blogging, but there are many different ways to grow that number. You'll receive a PDF outlining exactly what you must do in order to increase your page views.
The most successful affiliate marketers focus on niches that feature desperate buyers. These buyers have a pressing problem they urgently need to solve. As a result, they’re more likely to impulse buy a product that promises results, and they’re less sensitive to cost. Following this logic, an e-book to help the unemployed find work within 30 days is a more viable affiliate product than an e-book to help people improve their golf swing.

If you don’t know anything about web hosting, that’s ok. All you need to know is this – web hosts are a dime a dozen. There are probably thousands of web hosts you can go with, and quite frankly. they are all about the same. Web hosting has turned into a commodity type of business which is good news for you. Web hosting is cheaper than ever and at the same time, it is better than ever.


I was really thrilled to get to know that an affiliate program can help with getting more traffic to your site. As a matter of fact, it makes sense because only relevant sites will become your affiliates and that’s exactly how you will get links from related (relevant sites). Actually, even if a site is not relevant, it becomes one after it joins your affiliate program but it will use your products on its pages, which will make the site relevant. It’s a win-win and a no-brainer to make that happen but you still need to make sure that your properly promote your affiliate program before it gets off the ground and gets you traffic results.
The first thing you’ll need to do is decide which ‘niche’ you want to dedicate your website to. You can be highly specific when it comes to your niche, or pick one that encompasses multiple subjects, such as technology or fashion. However, the latter approach is often more difficult for beginners. After all, the more subjects you have to write about, the harder it’ll be to compete with more established websites. Instead, it’s often best to start out by focusing on particular product types, such as running shoes, lawnmowers, or even graphics cards. 

I’ve just got to hear about affiliate marketing and am really a newbie to this matter. The post above was so great and helpful for a person like me. I also took a look at locationrebel which seemed very exciting to me. I wonder if those courses and blueprints are still applicable because as far as I’ve seen, the reviews and testimonials all refer to the year 2013. It was the only reason that hold me back from joining the Locationrebel. I would be very thankful if you help me with this matter.

Since publishers generate income from the traffic their website generates, they are tasked with marketing. The affiliate must attract potential customers to their content, and convince them that the merchant’s product is worth buying. Publishers market products to the consumer through a range of channels: digital billboards, social networks, and search engines using content marketing on websites or blogs. We’ll cover how this is done further along the article.
Obviously, and we’ve already mentioned this, you need to follow your passion especially if you’ll be writing the content yourself. If you need reminding, you’ll be writing for people who are interested in the products you’re promoting – other niche enthusiasts as Shaun Quarton puts it. If you’re not passionate about the products you’re promoting, but are in the biz because the niche is lucrative, these enthusiasts “…will see straight through lifeless, uninspired content.”

Sorry to hear you are having issues with the theme mentioned in the post! It appears that they offer support only via their own dedicated forum. Where you able to receive support there? You could always try requesting a refund for the product if it’s not working as expected here is a link for requesting a refund on themeforest. If you were able to locate a better theme for creating comparison sites, please let me know so I can take a look and update this post accordingly.
This is a very common way to promote offers. For example, you will often see a blog post with links to certain products or services. If the reader clicks through and makes a purchase, the blog owner will make a commission. These in-text links blend in with other content on your site and are a great way of promoting an offer within your content, without being over-the-top salesy with banners. 
You’re absolutely right about that time. Never give up. Content marketing is a hard job but you got to look at it like this. The internet and side hustles are here to stay. It goes Way Beyond making money online. We both know there’s no more traditional job security in America today. These narcissist employers are nothing nice. They will hire you 1 minute. Harass you on the job. Steal your commissions and laugh at you behind your back while you continually work hard and put more money in their pocket, then try to enslave you into making more money for them and continually disrespect you to your face. This is the Ironclad indicated it’s time to walk away and start your own business online by working part time on your side hustle weather to Philly at marketing, blogging, or selling your own product service online. There’s billions of dollars to be made in the affiliate marketing industry. With that said, it’s a good thing to know the side hustle is here to stay to those who dedicate themselves to creating quality content on blogs and websites and taking a side hustle to the public nightstep. Agree? :-)
Tip 18. Only Promote the Best Affiliate Programs. This tip is kind of a repeat of one I just went over but a smaller scope. Finding the best affiliates that reflect your interests will give you a much better result. That’s because you might already be using that product or serve or you truly have interest in the product or service. I always experience my affiliates because I never want to promote something I haven’t tried myself and that’s because if someone asks me I want to be able to tell them exactly what I have received from the product.
A browser extension is a plug-in that extends the functionality of a web browser. Some extensions are authored using web technologies such as HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Most modern web browsers have a whole slew of third-party extensions available for download. In recent years, there has been a constant rise in the number of malicious browser extensions flooding the web. Malicious browser extensions will often appear to be legitimate as they seem to originate from vendor websites and come with glowing customer reviews.[28] In the case of affiliate marketing, these malicious extensions are often used to redirect a user’s browser to send fake clicks to websites that are supposedly part of legitimate affiliate marketing programs. Typically, users are completely unaware this is happening other than their browser performance slowing down. Websites end up paying for fake traffic number, and users are unwitting participants in these ad schemes.
That’s because the affiliate program works by setting a browser cookie when someone clicks on an affiliate link and tracks any purchases made at the destination before the cookie expires. After that, the affiliate program pays out a small commission. Thus, it’s possible to make a little money or even make a living off of affiliate marketing, but only if you can convince people to click on your links and buy your affiliate partner’s products.
In 2006, the most active sectors for affiliate marketing were the adult gambling, retail industries and file-sharing services.[17]:149–150 The three sectors expected to experience the greatest growth are the mobile phone, finance, and travel sectors.[17] Soon after these sectors came the entertainment (particularly gaming) and Internet-related services (particularly broadband) sectors. Also several of the affiliate solution providers expect to see increased interest from business-to-business marketers and advertisers in using affiliate marketing as part of their mix.[17]:149–150
Thanks so much, Stuart! I read the article you sent a link to today: "How To Start Your Own $20K p/m Affiliate Site". I got very intrigued, and then found my way to this tutorial where, serendipitously 🙂 you showcase WhyImSoBroke as your ultimate example in the chapter: "How To Create Your Own Unusual Product Site". Very jazzed about the potential in building a niche weird product site! Thanks again. Wow, what amazing content you post!
Website Development Help – need help setting up your theme? I’ve been working with the same 2 developers for 3+ years. To hire them, sign up for a Freelancer account, post your job (WordPress theme installation) then invite user i333 or bdkamol to your project. If you want, contact me and I will introduce you to them via email. Both are great developers with reasonable rates, speak fluent English, and I outsource all my programming work to them.
The implementation of affiliate marketing on the internet relies heavily on various techniques built into the design of many web-pages and websites, and the use of calls to external domains to track user actions (click tracking, Ad Sense) and to serve up content (advertising) to the user. Most of this activity adds time[citation needed] and is generally a nuisance to the casual web-surfer and is seen as visual clutter.[citation needed] Various countermeasures have evolved over time to prevent or eliminate the appearance of advertising when a web-page is rendered. Third party programs (Ad-Aware, Adblock Plus, Spybot, pop-up blockers, etc.) and particularly, the use of a comprehensive HOSTS file can effectively eliminate the visual clutter and the extra time and bandwidth needed to render many web pages. The use of specific entries in the HOSTS file to block these well-known and persistent marketing and click-tracking domains can also aid in reducing a system's exposure to malware by preventing the content of infected advertising or tracking servers to reach a user's web-browser.[citation needed]
The saying goes that people eat with their eyes, well, people are also quite picky about how their content is presented. Standout guides aren’t just well considered and expertly written. They are designed expertly. Designs aren’t just there to dress up an article, they are practical. Everything from content flow to sign-up forms and social sharing buttons are considered when content is intentionally designed with a bit of thought. Hiring a web designer will get the best quality results, at a price. You don’t need to hire a web designer to turn your guide into something special.
Shopify is a very popular site building platform for people interested in building eCommerce stores. It has been around for the past few years and seen significant growth in its user base over this time. You can earn a staggering 200% per sale for every new customer you refer to them, which means that there is up to $2400 per new customer on offer.
I LOVE Michelle and my Making Sense of Affiliate Marketing community. There’s the notion out there that you are the average of the 5 people you hang out with. When I started “hanging out with” high-income bloggers on the interwebs, my blog income started to skyrocket. I firmly believe you need to surround yourself with people who share your goals and are at least one step ahead of you. It encourages you to step up your game.
This is exactly what we are going to talk about and discuss in this article. We are going to cover everything from the head to the toe of affiliate marketing and how it works. If you are new to the game, this article will serve as the foundation for your affiliate business. And if you are an expert, you may even find new insights that can serve as a great reminder to boost your business.
Browsing between products, you’ll notice a steep difference in the amount of commission offered from one to the next. Often, you’ll find there is a trade-off between the quality of a product and the commission paid. Naturally, it’s tempting to gravitate toward the products that pay the most per sales (conversion). But, realistically, if those products are unlikely to convert, they might not be the best fit.
There is an abundance of educational products that can teach you and it's just too much to learn on your own. The tons of ebooks and other programs out there can make you totally confused before you even got started. An affiliate marketing school sieves out what is relevant for your learning. Something that worked well a month ago may be outdated now. In such case, constant and thorough researches are needed to come up with updated data for better understanding. Internet is one of the valuable tools, which can pave way for better comprehension and knowledge. More than that, if you are on the affiliate business, you can be assured that you can connect well with your possible subscribers with affiliate marketing tools, which are actually made available online.
For example, if I talk about how cool a product is, and then you find out that I’m an affiliate for them, wouldn’t you as a conscientious observer become skeptical as to whether my information is biased, if perhaps I’m only saying how cool something is because I can get paid for it? Wouldn’t that make you question my integrity with other things I say as well?
Becoming a part of an affiliate network is an excellent strategy for bloggers looking to up their current income or even just to begin actually making money from their blog. There are several options when it comes to affiliate marketing as well as strategies for making affiliate marketing work for you. Below I will teach you what is affiliate marketing, examples of affiliate marketing in blogging, affiliate strategies and some of the top affiliate networks to join.
Brick has become the trusted and efficient digital marketing department our company needed to get to the next plateau. From SEO, to article writing, to social media and Adwords campaigns they literally do it all for us. And honestly, Brick marketing keeps us on track for our marketing goals, not the other way around. We could not be more pleased with the job Brick is doing for us.”
It will probably take a couple years to build a sustainable, passive income. That is the 1st car I have EVER purchased myself at age 29 (I was broke until then and leased from my parents). But the time committed to affiliate marketing and creating great tutorials and YouTube videos was worth it… I work for myself, there is virtually no limit on how much I can make, my schedule is flexible, and I collect enough passive income to live how I want.
Affiliates are the ones who connect the customers to the products through whatever channel they see fit. It can be the affiliate promoting the products via social media, blogs, or digital advertisements such as banners, etc. Customers do not really need to understand that they are a part of the affiliate marketing system to make the whole thing works.

The majority of the websites out there today are content-based websites because content marketing has grown tremendously over the past few years. Many big companies are not starting their own blogs because they believe that content will be the vital part of their online venture. Even Starbucks has a blog called Starbucks Channel to keep their customers updated about their business.


You don’t mention Zazzle’s affiliate program. I’m a designer there so am automatically enrolled. Perhaps Zazzle has been overlooked because, until now, there wasn’t really a professonial quality plugin to do all the work? Now there’s NiftyGridZPro, which not only creates great grids, responsively designed, it also has optional inbuilt search and pagination. But making it soar is its real-time global slot messaging system. All links are rel=nofollow and best SEO practices used.

Hey there, my name is Mike! I’ve been a full-time affiliate marketer for several years now and each year my business grows and grows through residual income. Literally, every morning when I wake up, I check to see how much money I made while I slept. I live and work literally wherever I want, when I want, as long as I want, and I do not sell any of my own products. How awesome is that?! You can read my full affiliate marketing success story here.

Many years ago, I was a broke college student in debt up to my eyeballs. I couldn’t even afford my own place. I became a full-time over-the-road truck driver and was working 70 to 80hrs+ per week, away from home for weeks or even months at a time, and was living in a space the size of a walk-in closet. To make matters worse, I was getting paid chump change.

In the past, large affiliates were the mainstay, as catch-all coupon and media sites gave traffic to hundreds or thousands of advertisers. This is not so much the case anymore. With consumers using long-tail keywords and searching for very specific products and services, influencers can leverage their hyper-focused niche for affiliate marketing success. Influencers may not send advertisers huge amounts of traffic, but the audience they do send is credible, targeted, and has higher conversion rates. 


Moneysupermarket.com is a good example of success CPA. This is a big brand financial site that focuses on a UK audience. They get a fat commission for every credit card lead they send to Visa and the other big credit card companies. To learn more about how to incorporate CPA advertising into your affiliate website, read this practical guide from the Modern Entrepreneur.
Best Forex Partners (BFP) was established in 2011 by a group of international financiers and global online marketing professionals who saw a need to change the nature of affiliate marketing for the better.  In a few short years they combined their over 60 years of combined financial and marketing experience to create a new way to affiliate market and have never looked back!
Review : I’m really happy that I bought this course. Theo was so informative and had really good explanations. I loved how she walked us through setting up our blog step by step which really helped me and also motivated me to get it done. It made starting my blog less overwhelming for me to see her steps on Word Press. She was very thorough and I feel a lot better about it now. She even is responsive on the Facebook group. Would definitely recommend this course! If anything could be changed, I would just want to see even more steps on the word press side as far as physically setting things up. Thanks for a great course Theo! – Jamie Banks

I would have one partner create a separate page/contact form specifically for the advertiser – so only people who see that contact form are people who were referred to by the advertiser. The advertiser would use that page as their outbound link. I know you can track outbound clicks in Google Analytics events and Contact Form conversions (usually through most contact form plugins) but that is the best way I think. Never done it, but this is how I see most affiliate programs like that work.


Affiliate marketing is popular among digital marketers since it’s a straightforward way to earn some additional income without having to shell out any money in advance. Even so, anyone hoping to earn a full-time living this way has to be prepared to put in the work. It requires a concerted effort in pushing products and services through all possible online mediums.
Building a successful Amazon affiliate site does take a lot of work. But, even if you’re a beginner it’s a great way to learn the fundamentals of working online. The steps above gave you everything you need to know to get started creating your very own website. Now it’s time to get to work! Remember, success will only come with consistent and sustained effort. 

It’s easy to get carried away at the beginning and promote too many different things on the same site. As a beginner, it’s best to stick to a single topic for your website. It’s less complicated, and it gives you the opportunity to set yourself up as a knowledge base for that niche. Additionally, it’s much less confusing from a visitor’s point of view if a site about headphones doesn’t also cover kitchen appliances.

The topic you choose must have enough depth that you can create a lot of content for it. This is important for building an authoritative site, for search engine optimization, and most importantly, for the end user. If you don't have enough content about a topic, you're not going to be taken very seriously as an authority on the topic and it's unlikely you can convince someone to make a purchase from you. 

Developing and monetizing microsites can also garner a serious amount of sales. These sites are advertised within a partner site or on the sponsored listings of a search engine. They are distinct and separate from the organization’s main site. By offering more focused, relevant content to a specific audience, microsites lead to increased conversions due to their simple and straightforward call to action.
“I didn’t realize how much we were missing from not having an online presence until I started working with the SEO firm Brick Marketing. The Brick Marketing team took the time to guide us through the SEO process and helped bring our company into the online world. We’ve seen unbelievable success with our new website & owe much of our online lead generation to Brick Marketing’s efforts.”
Product Reviews – The infamous product review websites… This is a very popular method where the author is an expert in a particular field and gets hands-on experience for a product/ service and gives their personal opinion on the product. This is a very competitive market if you are trying to go after something broad such as cameras or laptops. An example would be http://www.steves-digicams.com
Let no one tell you that email marketing is dead. An email list is crucial for every affiliate marketer. You can start building up your email list with a lead magnet (like the information products mentioned previously) or even just by encouraging your audience to sign up for your updates. You can then push your content to this audience via email and also direct them to your affiliate offers. Don't be sleazy about the sales, but if you build up enough trust with your email audience; when the time comes, they will not mind purchasing a product from you. 
Also referred to as CID tracking, MID tracking and TID tracking. “SID” is the abbreviation for the sub campaign tracking abilities offered by Commission Junction. Almost every mainstream network refers to it differently. SIDs allow you to create specific tracking codes for your affiliate links to track the success of a specific effort. I wrote a whole article about SID, CID, MID and TID tracking codes if you'd like more information about what they are and how they're used.
An affiliate marketing program is a lot of work, and in most situations there's a lot of competition so you're not going to be bringing in money immediately. Business owners and entrepreneurs suppose that all you need do is setup a site and choose an affiliate to associate with and then just let it run its course. But according to Three Ladders Marketing, only 0.6% of affiliate marketers surveyed have been in the game since 2013. That means that affiliate marketing takes time and effort to build and make money.
Another consideration is how much commission you can make per sale. Info products, such as downloadable e-books, work well for this reason; they cost next to nothing to make and distribute, so the revenue from each sale is pure profit. As an affiliate, you could earn up to 70 percent of an e-book’s sales price. You’d be shocked at how many people will pay as much as $50 for an e-book if it solves a pressing problem they have – and if you get a 70 percent commission, $35 goes directly into your pocket every time you make a sale.
Affiliate marketers can use how-to guides offer simple and clear instructions showing readers how products work and how to perform specific tasks. These are often used by digital marketers because they provide clear value to their readers, and elevate you in their minds as an authority on your chosen niche. What’s more, these are often long form in nature - going into detail to cover complex topics can improve your pagerank in search engine results pages (SERPS).
Great article as it gets me thinking about the various ways to monetize my sites. With that said, my biggest hurdle has been how to get started building traffic. You see articles all over the net talking about massive traffic techniques, but I’ve never really found a guide for a fresh blog/website and how to get to their first 100, 500, or 1,000 daily uniques. Of course writing consistent quality content is key, but writing alone an audience does not make. Any tips or articles to point us to? Thanks again Sean!
Tip 20. Learn New Things Rise Above the Competition. There’s always competition out there and there’s no better way to make people notice you than rising above the rest. This can be as simple as releasing a new hot article every week about the trending things in your market, or it could be just as easy as truly helping people with their desires and needs. Showing people you’re on the forefront of the market will allow you to be the go to source for their needs and wants.

Stands for Return on Advertising Spending, also shortened many times to Return on Ad Spend and can also be referred to as ROI. It refers to the amount of money made as a result of a specific advertising campaign. To find the ROAS of a campaign, you take the revenue divide it by the ad spend and multiply the result by 100. The result is presented in percentage form. Example – if you spent $200 to run a campaign and you made a gross profit of $600, you would take $600 (revenue) and divide it by $200 (ad spend) to get 3 and then multiply that by 100 to get 300 – displayed as a 300% ROAS. The amount over 100% using this method of calculation is your profit. In this example, that would mean you received a 200% profit on the campaign.
1. The Affiliate Marketing School Before joining a joint venture partner program, try to speak to some people that have used the scheduled program before. This assists you avoid any fraud from this program. Ask about just how much they pay and when they pay if they say that they shall. You can gain a whole lot of knowledge about this program from individuals who have used it before. Yoga is an excellent method for an affiliate marketer to help keep their stress in check. Off a day to accomplish some deep breathing take one hour, mediation, or yoga exercises to both clear your brain and help the body strengthen itself. Achieving this routine along with regular aerobic exercise shall keep you in top-top condition. HitFox is growing companies in the fields of Big Data, advertising and game distribution, and grew 600% in 2013 while making more than € 15m in profit. Our database keeps track of your program IDs and every person that is placed in your downline. Your will receive credit for people in your downline and your downlines site visitors that join any program that you participate in. Affiliate marketers are people who drive traffic to eBay and take a cut when the traffic results in a sale. While Gardner's book is not quite as detailed as some of the other books in this list, it is clear, concise and takes a no-nonsense approach to affiliate marketing. Affiliate Program Management: An Hour a Day was written by Evgenii Prussakov. The book is a few years old now, and it is aimed at merchants rather than affiliate marketers, but it still contains some valuable insights into how the world of affiliate marketing works. Topics covered include social media marketing, feeds, coupons, how to write compelling content, and much more. This highly focused affiliate marketing title was written by Steve Scott. This affordable title is packed full of tips and tricks for people who want to build up a strong presence on Twitter, Google+, Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, LinkedIn, Pinterest and other social networks. Every affiliate marketers should have a good understanding of how to leverage social networks to promote their products and their brand. The more established companies share this information with affiliates so they can personalize their campaigns for better sales and commissions. Make it even more attractive by giving discounts to the people who answer the question correctly.can get better online marketing results by making your email newsletter valuable enough to its subscribers that people will want to sign up for it. Before the advent of internet marketing, emails used to be a novelty that people enjoyed receiving. You must be truthful with visitors to be successful. If your readers sense you are being less-than clear or somehow dishonest, they will bypass your affiliate link and find out how they can buy the product directly from the seller. Make the subscription options to your list very accessible. A visitor should be able to decide to join your list from any page on your website. The process should be simple and easy to complete. Usually people will decide to join your list after viewing a couple of the pages on your site. You want to have a subscription link available as soon as they make the decision to join.
Most of the traffic for your affiliate website will come from product related searches, and product reviews. Generally, these will be more long-tail terms such as, “Blendtec 570 vs Vitamix 5300”, or “greenworks mower vs black and decker”. The traffic coming from keywords like these will be very targeted, as the searcher has the intention to purchase something.
Affiliates work to introduce their visitors to the merchant’s brand. They might write a post about a new product or promotion on the merchant’s site, feature banner ads on their site that drive people to the merchant’s site, or offer visitors a special coupon code. If people come from that affiliate’s site and make a purchase, that affiliate gets paid.
Hi Jamie! Thank you for the great information. I just learned about affiliate marketing last week. The source however, is an older couple who work for World Wide Dreams Builders (WWDB). So, basically Amway. After researching a bit. I have no interest in WWDB and. (It sounds like years of recruiting people with minimal payout) Though, I am highly intrigued by e-commerce and affiliate marketing. Before your post the company I recognized was Amazon. Can you please tell me if that will be the best 1st step. I am currently an unemployed student Veteran. So plan to fully emerge into this business regime and would greatly appreciate your advice on this!!! 
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